je te propose sa :


It is in 1865 that slavery was constitutionally abolished throughout the territory of the Union, with the vote of the Thirteenth Amendment. Then the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments were passed (1868 and 1870), which guaranteed the civil rights of blacks, and equality before the law with whites. However, these amendments to the Constitution remained a dead letter, especially in the southern states where legislative fireworks allowed to reduce to 90% the number of blacks eligible to vote or stand for election